CONTENTS

PREFACE [ PDF: 297Kb | 16 Page ]

  1. The SEAM Project An Introduction
  2. The Industrial Pollution Prevention/Cleaner Production Component
  3. Industrial Pollution Prevention/Cleaner Production Documents
List of Abbreviations
1.0    INTRODUCTION[ PDF: 297Kb | 16 Page ]
1.1  Cleaner Production - Concept and Definition
1.2    The Benefits of Cleaner Production
1.3    Cleaner Production in the Egyptian Oil and Soap Industry
1.4    SEAM Project in the Oil and Soap Industry
1.5    Factories Participating in the SEAM Project
1.6    SEAM Demonstration Projects
PART A THE OIL & SOAP SECTOR[ PDF: 316Kb | 25 Page ]

2.0   The Egyptian Oil and Soap Sector

2.1   Introduction
2.2    Ownership and Organisation
2.3    Productivity of the Sector
2.4    Geographical Distribution
3.0    Oil and Soap Manufacturing Processes
3.1   Seeds Preparation and Oil Extraction
3.1.1  Seed Reception and Storage
3.1.2   Seed Cleaning
3.1.3   Seed Dehulling and Hull Separation
3.1.4   Seed Crushing and Rolling (Flaking) and Cooking
3.1.5   Oil Extraction
3.2    Oil Refining and Treatment
3.2.1  Degumming and Dewaxing
3.2.2   Neutralisation
3.2.3   Washing and Drying
3.2.4   Bleaching and Filtration
3.2.5   Winterisation and Stearine Removal
3.2.6   Deodorisation
3.3    Oil Hydrogenation and Shortening
3.3.1  Hydrogen Injection and Autoclaving
3.3.2   Cooling and Filtration
3.3.3   Refining of Oil Shortening
3.4    Soap and Glycerine Production
3.4.1  Saponification
3.4.2   Laundry and Toilet Soap Production
3.4.3   Fatty Acids
3.4.4   Glycerine Production
3.5    Animal Fodder Production

3.6    Ancillary Units

3.6.1  Boilers - Generation of Steam
3.6.2   Cooling Towers
3.6.3   Feed Water Treatment
3.6.4   Laboratories
3.6.5   Production of Packaging Containers
3.6.6   Workshops
3.7    Utilisation of Resources
3.7.1  Raw Materials Utilisation
3.7.2   Water Consumption
3.7.3   Energy Utilisation
4.0    The Oil Industry and its Effect on the Environment
4.1   Seeds Preparation and Oil Extraction

4.2    Oil Refining and Treatment

4.2.1  Degumming and Neutralisation
4.2.2   Bleaching
4.2.3   Deodorisation
4.3    Oil Hydrogenation and Shortening

4.4    Soap and Glycerine Production

4.4.1  Recovery of Soap in the Spent Lye
4.4.2   Recovery of Soap during Shutdown Periods
4.4.3   Soap Dust
4.4.4   Polymeric Residue formation in the Glycerine Production Plant
4.4.5   Aluminium Soap formation in the Glycerine Production Plant
4.5    Unit Cleaning and Washing

4.6    Mixing of Cooling Water with Process Water

4.7    Utilities...

4.8    Effects of Waste generated by the Sector on the Environment

4.8.1  Water Pollution
4.8.2   Contaminated Land
4.8.3   Air Pollution
4.8.4   Other Environmental Risks
PART B CLEANER PRODUCTION AND THE SEAM PROJECT[ PDF: 164Kb | 28 Page ]

5.0   Cleaner Production Audits

5.1   Introduction - What is a Cleaner Production Audit?
5.2    Carrying out an Industrial Audit: A Step by Step Description
5.3    Sampling and Analytical Requirements
5.4    Sustaining and Developing Cleaner Production
6.0    Cleaner Production Options Identified through SEAM
6.1   Good Housekeeping Measures
6.1.1  Storage of Raw Materials
6.1.2   Material Handling and Usage
6.1.3   General Issues
6.2    Energy Conservation Measures

6.3    Water Conservation Measures

6.3.1  Flow Reduction
6.3.2   Water Reuse
6.4    Process Specific Options

6.5    Optimising Process Chemical Use

6.6    Materials Substitution

6.7    Recovery of By-Products and Wastes

6.7.1  Process Units
6.7.2   Packaging Wastes
6.7.3   General
6.8    Technology Change and Modification
6.8.1  Use of Heat Exchangers
6.8.2   Solar Energy
6.9    Adoption of Worker Training Programmes

6.10    End of Pipe Treatment

7.0    Cleaner Production Demonstration Projects
7.1   The SEAM Project Approach

7.2    The Aim of Implementing Demonstration Projects

7.3    Identification of Demonstration Projects

7.4    Selection of Factories for Demonstration Project Implementation

7.5    Plants selected for Implementation

7.6    Project Concept Notes (PCNs)

7.7    Overview of Demonstration Projects

7.7.1  Waste Minimisation, Sila Edible Oil Company, Fayoum
7.7.2   Oil and Fats Recovery, Tanta Oil and Soap Company, Tanta
7.7.3   Reduced Wastage through Improving Raw Water Quality, Alexandria Oil and Soap Company, Kafr El-Sheikh
7.8    Outputs from the Demonstration Projects
PART C SUSTAINING CLEANER PRODUCTION[ PDF: 82.6Kb | 9 Page ]

8.0   Cleaner Production Issues in Egypt

8.1   Overcoming Barriers to Cleaner Production Adoption In Egypt

8.2    Internal Barriers

8.2.1  Economic Barriers
8.2.2   Technical Barriers
8.2.3   Cultural Barriers
8.2.4   Quality Considerations
8.2.5   Information Dissemination
8.3    External Barriers
8.3.1  Difficulty in Accessing Cleaner Technology Information
8.3.2   Difficulty in Accessing External Sources of Finance
8.4    Overcoming Internal Barriers to Cleaner Production Implementation
8.4.1  Economic Factors
8.4.2   Technical Factors
8.4.3   Cultural Factors
8.5    Promotional Strategies for Adopting CP in Egypt
8.5.1  Policy Options
8.5.2   Capacity Building and Technical Assistance
8.5.3   Impact of the SEAM Demonstration Projects
REFERENCES

APPENDICES[ PDF: 234Kb | 27 Page ]
Appendix 1    Oil and Soap Production Statistics
Appendix 2    Three Processes used for Fat Splitting
Appendix 3    Summary of Wastes generated by Indian Edible Oil Factories
Appendix 4    Summary of Relevant Environmental Legislation
Appendix 5    Industrial Audit Checklist
Appendix 6    Environmental Practices of Selected Factories
Appendix 7    Case Studies from the SEAM Project