The system is now working well and the Sohag Markaz has taken responsibility for its ongoing maintenance. This will include line maintenance and use of vacuum tankers to empty septic tanks.

Levelling the sewage pipelines during installation


As a result of the social survey an awareness raising campaign was undertaken which covered the following:

  • A series of public meetings were held with the villagers to discuss the sanitation system and to raise general awareness on the need for improved sanitation.
  • Awareness raising material was developed with the Sohag Directorate of Health.
  • Ra’idat, or health promoters, were trained on environmental health issues.
  • Ra’idat worked with the community to raise environmental health awareness.
  • Local Government unit made door-to-door visits regarding household connections and to discuss usage of the system.

Awareness booklet produced with the Sohag
Directorate of Health

The table below shows that the capital expenditures for this scheme are LE153,530, which amounts to LE1,335 per household connected. The total capital and operating costs of the scheme are LE159,530.

Based on the financial model used for a similar sanitation project at Naga El-Deir village, an approximate annualised capital and operating costs of the scheme is about LE26,188. This is equivalent to LE228 per household per annum or LE19 per household per month.
Scheme Characteristics
(115 households connected)
Costs LE
Cost (LE) per Household
Engineering design and topographic survey 8,210  
Awareness raising 4,600  
Construction and materials - PVC pipes, inspection manholes, cast iron covers, septic tanks, toilets, brickwork, cement, aggregates, etc. 140,720  
Total Investment
153,530 1335
Annualised capital costs – approximate over 15 years at 10% real discount rate. 20,188  
Annual Operating costs (estimate) 6,000 52
Annual capital and operating costs 26,188 228

From the social survey, 79% of respondents indicated a willingness to contribute to the maintenance of the system.


The project was designed to be sustainable in the following ways:

  • The involvement of the local village council, the markaz and the community in different stages of the project and their financial contributions had generated a high level of ‘ownership’.
  • The Markaz has taken responsibility for the ongoing maintenance.
  • The local villagers expressed a willingness to pay for maintenance.
  • The sanitation system is relatively low-cost to maintain and appropriate for the local circumstances.
  • Raised awareness on environmental health issues and use of the system.

It is estimated that around 150 villages in Sohag Governorate are not connected to a sewerage system. The scheme could be replicated in many of these villages however one would need to consider the proximity to an existing or planned sewerage network. Topographical constraints may also limit application of the gravity feed system whereby households will need to be higher than the optimum position for the septic tanks.


In replicating this project points to keep in mind:

  1. Involve the community and local authorities, as they are often willing to contribute to achieve an improved system.
  2. Educate the community on the correct use of the system to avoid blockages caused by solid waste disposal.
  3. Ensure system is working properly before connecting any households.
  4. Maintain constant supervision of contractors to ensure all works are done in accordance with the contract specifications.