Key findings of the survey are summarised below. Indicators that were identified for monitoring over time to determine the real impacts of the project, are highlighted.
  • 73% had no formal education.
  • Average household size was 8 persons.
  • 30% did not have toilet facilities with most using the animal shed or going to the desert behind.
  • Of the 70% that had toilets most were using cesspits - there were frequent complaints of malodours and the fact they attracted flies.
  • 11% had a septic tank that was emptied 1-3 times per year; cost per load was around LE50.
  • Over 98% had access to potable water.
  • 67% were dissatisfied with the sanitation facilities (indicator to monitor).
  • 57% disposed sullage in the street. (indicator to monitor)
  • 45% suffered from diarrhoea in the previous 6 months and most had diarrhoea 2-4 times a year (indicator to monitor).
  • 77% had not received hygiene education (indicator to monitor).
Many of those surveyed did not know the causes of diarrhoea nor did they see any link between ‘gastro-intestinal’ disorders and inadequate sanitary facilities and contaminated water.

The results of the social survey and additional group interviews with women formed the basis for an awareness raising and hygiene education campaign. A separate door-to-door survey, to discuss the proposed scheme and household connections, was carried out.


Topographic Survey

A survey was done using a theodolite to determine the topographic variations over the village. A plan with contour elevations was prepared and subsequently used as the basis for designing the sanitary drainage system. The village slopes gently to the east with a maximum elevation difference of 6 metres. The topography was suitable for gravity feed system similar to that installed by SEAM at Naga El-Deir village.

Design and Construction

It was proposed that Naga El-Karakra would be served by a simple, low cost sanitation system. The proposed gravity feed system would use buried sewage lines serving 115 households or around 60% of the population. Sewage would flow to two communal septic tanks at the eastern boundary of the village.

Detailed design was undertaken then checked and agreed with the Sohag Governorate Engineering Department. The following information was prepared and formed the basis of tender specifications:

  • A 50 page tender document detailing the scope of work, design specifications, bills of quantities and contract conditions.
  • Eight civil engineering drawings showing the layout of sewage pipe lines, manholes and septic tanks, sewage line profiles with expected excavation depths, and construction/material requirements for the manholes and septic tanks.
Companies were invited to tender for either a turn key package for supply and installation, or to provide materials and construction supervision with the villagers providing all necessary labour. Following discussion with the Governorate and village unit the turn key option was preferred and the works were awarded to a local contractor.

Collection System

The collection system comprises five central gravity sewage pipelines. The network was designed to follow ground levels and minimise excavation depths for pipes and manholes. PVC pipes were selected for their ease of installation and lower cost. The diameter of the main pipelines varied from 6-8 inch, while 4 inch pipe was used for household connections. Manholes, or inspection chambers were installed and capped with cast iron covers. 115 households were connected.

Septic Tanks

Two in-series septic tanks were installed with a capacity of 100 m3. The septic tanks will work as a ‘primary/secondary’ treatment facility. Suspended solids will settle to the tank bottom. In addition, the septic tanks will allow for some secondary treatment by retaining wastewater long enough for anaerobic decomposition. Sludge formed from decomposition will settle to the tank bottom and liquors will discharge into an irrigation ditch. Sludge will be removed 1-2 times per year depending on its rate of accumulation. The design rate is expected to be around 0.04 m3/capita/year.

Two in-series septic tanks installed with a capacity of 100m3


Installation took 9 months. Delays occurred in having to excavate carefully around buried telephone cables and water pipes, the location of which was not always known. Household connections did not commence till after all main lines and septic tanks had been installed and fully checked. Main items of the scheme are summarised below.
Main sewage lines 1500 m x 6 inch plus 210 m x 8 inch PVC pipe
Household connections 1150 m x 4 inch PVC pipe
Inspection manholes 80 inspection manholes varying in depth from 0.5 m to 1.6 m. All manholes had cast iron covers. An additional 85 small inspection chambers were installed for individual households.
Communal septic tanks Two in-series septic tanks along eastern edge of the village. Total capacity of the septic tanks is 100 m3
Household toilets 115 ‘oriental’ floor type closets
Households connected 115