A number of public meetings had been held with the villagers to discuss the sanitation system and to raise general awareness on the need for improved sanitation.

However a sanitation system without proper hygiene behaviour does not solely result in better health. It needs hygiene education to explain the relation between excreta and diseases. The social survey conducted in Naga El Deir showed that the knowledge of these relations was limited.

A health and hygiene awareness campaign was therefore prepared in collaboration with the Sohag Directorate of Health. Pictorial educational material on environment and personal hygiene was prepared. The Directorate of Health trained health promoters (Ra’idat) from the Community Association for Women’s Development in Dar El-Salam on the use and teaching of the educational material. The Ra’idat in turn provided awareness raising to the villagers often meeting with groups of 5-10 women and children in their homes.


The table below shows that the capital expenditures for this scheme are LE156,900, which amounts to LE1,846 per household connected. The total capital and operating costs of the scheme are LE162,900.

A financial analysis was undertaken to provide information on typical replication costs in situations where grant funding is not available. With an expected 15 year life of the sewerage scheme and septic tanks and using a discount rate of 10% (real) then the total annualised capital and operating costs of the scheme are about LE26,620. This is equivalent to LE313 per household per annum or LE26 per household per month.
Scheme Characteristics
(85 households connected)
Cost (LE) per
Engineering design and topographic survey 7,400  
Awareness raising 4,900  
Construction and materials - PVC pipes, inspection manholes,, septic tanks, toilets, brickwork, cement, aggregates, etc. 144,600  
Total Investment
156,900 1846
Annualised capital costs – 15 years at 10% real discount rate. 20,620  
Annual Operating costs (estimate) 6,000 71
Annual capital and operating costs 26,620 313

From the social survey, 83% of respondents indicated a willingness to pay for the maintenance of the system. The average fee was around LE40 per year although the range was quite broad, with the highest percentile group (18.5%) indicating a preference for LE24 per year.


The project was designed to be sustainable in the following ways:

  • The involvement of the local village council, the markaz and the community in different stages of the project and their financial contributions had generated a high level of ‘ownership’.
  • The Markaz has taken responsibility for the ongoing maintenance.
  • The local villagers expressed a willingness to pay for maintenance.
  • The sanitation system is relatively low-cost to maintain and appropriate for the local circumstances.
  • Raised awareness on environmental health issues and use of the system.

It is estimated that around 150 villages in Sohag Governorate are not connected to a sewerage system. The scheme could be replicated in many of these villages however one would need to consider the proximity to an existing or planned sewerage network. Topograpical constraints may also limit application of the gravity feed system whereby households will need to be higher than the optimum position for the septic tanks.

Installing sewage pipelines

Improving quality of life