|Key findings of the survey are summarised below.
Indicators that were identified for monitoring the impact of the project
over time are highlighted.
Many of those surveyed did not know the causes of
diarrhoea nor did they see any link between ‘gastro-intestinal’ disorders
and inadequate sanitary facilities and contaminated water.
90% had no formal education.
Average household size was 7 persons; range was 1
70% did not have toilet facilities with most using
the animal shed or going to the mountains behind.
Of the 30% that had toilets most were using cesspits
or barrels dug in the ground; less than 2% had a septic tank.
Over 90% had access to potable water.
92% were dissatisfied with the sanitation facilities
82% disposed sullage in the street (monitoring indicator).
75% suffered from diarrhoea in the previous 6 months
and most had diarrhoea 3-4 times a year (monitoring indicator).
88% had not received hygiene education (monitoring
The results of the social survey and additional
group interviews with women formed the basis for an awareness raising and
hygiene education campaign. A separate door-to-door survey, to discuss
the proposed scheme and household connections, was carried out.
CONSTRUCTION OF THE SANITATION SYSTEM
A survey was done using a theodolite to determine
the topographic variations over the village. A plan with contour elevations
was prepared and subsequently used as the basis for designing the sanitary
drainage system. Maximum variation in elevation was 10 metres with land
generally sloping towards the Nile but becoming flat along its western
margin. The topography was suitable for a gravity feed system.
Various options were considered by SEAM as follows:
An appraisal found that the most appropriate cost-effective
and practicable system would be the low cost gravity feed sanitary drainage
Providing individual soakaways to households - this
would pose considerable contamination risk to the groundwater and would
Providing individual septic tanks to households -
this would entail high costs for providing and emptying the numerous septic
Low cost gravity feed sanitary drainage system -
to collect sewage, which would flow to a limited number of septic tanks
located at the edge of the village so that the run-off from the tanks could
then pass through irrigation ditches.
Providing a number of septic tanks for groups of
households - this would entail more septic tanks than the gravity feed
sanitary drainage system and hence greater costs for providing and emptying
|Design and Construction
The proposed gravity feed system would use buried
sewage lines serving 85 households with communal septic tanks at the northern
and southern ends of the village.
Detailed design was undertaken then checked and
agreed with the Sohag Governorate Engineering Department. The following
information was prepared and formed the basis of tender specifications:
A 50 page tender document detailing the scope of
work, design specifications, bills of quantities and contract conditions.
Eight civil engineering drawings showing the layout
of sewage pipe lines, manholes and septic tanks, sewage line profiles with
expected excavation depths, and construction/material requirements for
the manholes and septic tanks.
Village of Naga El-Deir
Companies were invited to tender for either a
turn key package for supply and installation, or to provide materials and
construction supervision with the villagers providing all necessary labour.
Following discussion with the Governorate and village unit the turn key
option was preferred and the works were awarded to a local contractor.
Installation took 8 months. Main items of the
scheme are summarised below.
|Main sewage lines
||1350 m x 6 inch PVC
||1300 m x 4 inch PVC
||80 manholes varying
in depth from 0.5m to 2.3m. Along vehicle access roads manholes were fitted
with steel covers.
||4 tanks (total capacity
of 80m3) were provided with two being placed at either end of
||85 ‘oriental’ floor
Problems encountered during construction and initial
testing necessitated the following remedial works before commissioning
could be completed:
Correcting the elevation of one sewage line to maintain
the gravity flow.
Ensuring the manhole covers are made of cast iron
or reinforced concrete to withstand traffic.
Solid wastes dumped in the system by the villagers
were causing blockages and further awareness was required to ensure correct
Ensuring septic tanks have sufficient depth to achieve
design capacity and allowing effective settlement of solids and sludges.
Testing and remedial works took 3 months.
The system is now working well and the Dar El-Salam Markaz have taken responsibility
for its ongoing maintenance. This will include pipeline maintenance and
use of vacuum tankers to empty septic tanks.