Key findings of the survey are summarised below. Indicators that were identified for monitoring the impact of the project over time are highlighted.
  • 90% had no formal education.
  • Average household size was 7 persons; range was 1 to 20.
  • 70% did not have toilet facilities with most using the animal shed or going to the mountains behind.
  • Of the 30% that had toilets most were using cesspits or barrels dug in the ground; less than 2% had a septic tank.
  • Over 90% had access to potable water.
  • 92% were dissatisfied with the sanitation facilities (monitoring indicator).
  • 82% disposed sullage in the street (monitoring indicator).
  • 75% suffered from diarrhoea in the previous 6 months and most had diarrhoea 3-4 times a year (monitoring indicator).
  • 88% had not received hygiene education (monitoring indicator).
Many of those surveyed did not know the causes of diarrhoea nor did they see any link between ‘gastro-intestinal’ disorders and inadequate sanitary facilities and contaminated water.

The results of the social survey and additional group interviews with women formed the basis for an awareness raising and hygiene education campaign. A separate door-to-door survey, to discuss the proposed scheme and household connections, was carried out.


Topographic Survey

A survey was done using a theodolite to determine the topographic variations over the village. A plan with contour elevations was prepared and subsequently used as the basis for designing the sanitary drainage system. Maximum variation in elevation was 10 metres with land generally sloping towards the Nile but becoming flat along its western margin. The topography was suitable for a gravity feed system.

Sanitation Options

Various options were considered by SEAM as follows:

  • Providing individual soakaways to households - this would pose considerable contamination risk to the groundwater and would be expensive.
  • Providing individual septic tanks to households - this would entail high costs for providing and emptying the numerous septic tanks.
  • Low cost gravity feed sanitary drainage system - to collect sewage, which would flow to a limited number of septic tanks located at the edge of the village so that the run-off from the tanks could then pass through irrigation ditches.
  • Providing a number of septic tanks for groups of households - this would entail more septic tanks than the gravity feed sanitary drainage system and hence greater costs for providing and emptying them.
An appraisal found that the most appropriate cost-effective and practicable system would be the low cost gravity feed sanitary drainage system.
Design and Construction

The proposed gravity feed system would use buried sewage lines serving 85 households with communal septic tanks at the northern and southern ends of the village.

Detailed design was undertaken then checked and agreed with the Sohag Governorate Engineering Department. The following information was prepared and formed the basis of tender specifications:

  • A 50 page tender document detailing the scope of work, design specifications, bills of quantities and contract conditions.
  • Eight civil engineering drawings showing the layout of sewage pipe lines, manholes and septic tanks, sewage line profiles with expected excavation depths, and construction/material requirements for the manholes and septic tanks.

Village of Naga El-Deir

Companies were invited to tender for either a turn key package for supply and installation, or to provide materials and construction supervision with the villagers providing all necessary labour. Following discussion with the Governorate and village unit the turn key option was preferred and the works were awarded to a local contractor.

Installation took 8 months. Main items of the scheme are summarised below.
Main sewage lines 1350 m x 6 inch PVC pipe
Household connections 1300 m x 4 inch PVC pipe
Inspection manholes 80 manholes varying in depth from 0.5m to 2.3m. Along vehicle access roads manholes were fitted with steel covers.
Communal septic tanks 4 tanks (total capacity of 80m3) were provided with two being placed at either end of the village.
Household toilets 85 ‘oriental’ floor type closets
Households connected 85

Remedial Works

Problems encountered during construction and initial testing necessitated the following remedial works before commissioning could be completed:

  • Correcting the elevation of one sewage line to maintain the gravity flow.
  • Ensuring the manhole covers are made of cast iron or reinforced concrete to withstand traffic.
  • Solid wastes dumped in the system by the villagers were causing blockages and further awareness was required to ensure correct usage.
  • Ensuring septic tanks have sufficient depth to achieve design capacity and allowing effective settlement of solids and sludges.

Testing and remedial works took 3 months. The system is now working well and the Dar El-Salam Markaz have taken responsibility for its ongoing maintenance. This will include pipeline maintenance and use of vacuum tankers to empty septic tanks.