OECD SIDS                                                                2,4-DIMITROTOLUENE

 

 

FOREWORD                                                 INTRODUCTION

 

 

 

2,4-DIMITROTOLUENE

CAS N: 121-14-2

 

 

 

 

SIDS INITIAL ASSESSMENT PROFILE

CAS NO

121-14-2

Chemical Name

2,4-Dinitrotoluene

Structural formula

RECOMMENDATION OF THE SPONSOR COUNTRY

[ X ] presently of low priority for further work

[ ] requiring further information to assess identified concerns

[ ] candidate for in-depth risk assessment with a view to possible risk reduction activities

SHORT SUMMARY WHICH SUPPORT THE REASONS FOR THE RECOMMENDATIONS

The production volume of 2,4-Dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) is ca. 140,000 t/a in Germany and ca. 264,000 in the USA. The worldwide production is estimated at ca. 850000 t/y. Nearly the entire production volume is used as intermediate in chemical synthesis. The only direct use known is as additive in explosives. 2,4-DNT can be regarded as "inherently biodegradable" with low to moderate bioaccumulation.. The most sensitive environmental species to 2,4-DNT is the crustacean Daphnia magna (21d-NOEC = 0.04 mg/l).

The derived aquatic PNEC is 4 g/l.

The substance is harmful with oral administration (acute LD50 = 400 - 1954 mg/kg bw). It is mutagenic in the Ames test and in in vivo tests on mammals. The NOEL for repeated dose toxicity is 0.57 - 0.71 mg/kg bw/day (2-year study). No teratogenic effects were recorded and impairment of fertility were observed at doses which also cause other effects.

The highest aquatic local PEC due to production and processing was estimated to be 1.66 g/l in Germany and 56 g/l for a production site in the USA. For the PEC calculation (for production and processing plants plants without exposure information), the default values defined in the EU Technical Guidance Documents on Risk Assessment for New and Existing Substances are used (data about the discharges via waste water are not available for production and processing plants outside of Germany). For a production plant with an unknown site location a PEClocal of 245 g/l and for a processing plant a PEClocal of 570 g/l is calculated.

The EHD for inhalational exposure is estimated at <0.071 mg/kg bw.

Consumer exposure is not to be expected.

In conclusion, there is currently no risk to be expected to the environment or to humans for the 3 known production and processing sites in Germany. For a known production site in the USA, 2,4-DNT represents presently a risk for the aquatic compartment. A comparison of the predicted environmental concentrations for a production and a processing site (plants without exposure information, hypothetical unknown site location with a hypothetical capacity 1000 t/y) and the predicted no-effect concentration for aquatic ecosystems indicates that a risk of damage to aquatic ecosystems is to be expected.

IF FURTHER WORK IS RECOMMENDED, SUMMARISE ITS NATURE

Site specific exposure data have to be improved for all production and processing sites.

FULL SIDS SUMMARY

CAS-NO.: 121-14-2   PROTOCOL RESULTS
PHYSICAL CHEMICAL
2.1 Melting Point  

NA

69.9 C
2.2 Boiling Point  

NA

319.5 C (at kPa)
2.3 Density  

NA

1286 kg/m3
2.4 Vapour Pressure  

NA

7.9.10-6 kPa at RT C
2.5 Partition Coefficient (Log Pow)  

NA (exp.)

1.98
2.6 A Water solubility  

NA

166 mg/l at C
B pH  

/

at C
  pKa  

/

 
2.12 Oxidation : Reduction potential  

/

mV
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE / BIODEGRADATION
3.1.1 Photodegradation   calc. (Atkinson) In air T1/2 = 71 days
3.1.2 Stability in water (Photodegr.)     T1/2 = 6.5 - 20 days
3.2 Monitoring data     In air = / mg/m3
        In surface water = 0.1 - 2.0 mg/l
        In soil/sediment = 0.01 - 0.07 mg/g
        In biota = / mg/g
3.3 Transport and Distribution   calculated  
      (fugacity In water ca. 98 %
      level 1 type)  
         
3.5 Biodegradation  

NA

not readily biodegradable

inherently with adapted inoculum

FULL SIDS SUMMARY (cont)

CAS-NO.: 121-14-2 SPECIES PROTOCOL RESULTS
ECOTOXICOLOGY

(lowest effect concentrations only)

4.1 acute/prolonged toxicity to fish Lepomis

macrochirus

EPA-660/3-75-009

LC50 (96 hr) = 12.8 mg/l
4.2 acute/prolonged toxicity to aquatic invertebrates (daphnia) Daphnia

magna

EPA-660/3-75-009

EC50 (24 hr) = 22 mg/l
4.3 toxicity to aquatic plants
e. g. algae
Microcystis

aeruginosa

EPA (1971)

TLV (96 hr) = 0.05 mg/l
4.4 toxicity to microorganisms Uronema parduczi

NA

TLV (20 hr) = 0.55 mg/l
4.5.1 chronic toxicity to fish Lepomis

macrochirus

NA

TLV (8 w) = 0.05 mg/l
4.5.2 chronic toxicity to aquatic invertebrates (daphnia ) Daphnia magna

UBA (1984)

NOEC (21 d) = 0.04 mg/l
4.6.1 toxicity to soil dwelling organisms Folsomia candida

BBA (1991)

EC10 (33 d) = 2.8 mg/kg
4.6.2 toxicity to terrestrial plants Lactuca sativa

OECD 208

EC50 (14 d) = 4.9 mg/kg
TOXICOLOGY
5.1.1 acute oral toxicity rat

NA

LD50 = 400 mg/kg
5.1.2 acute inhalation toxicity /

/

LC50 = mg/m3
5.1.3 acute dermal toxicity rat

NA

LD50 = >2500 mg/kg
5.4 repeated dose toxicity rat (CD)

(2-year study)

NOEL= 0.57 - 0.71 mg/kg
5.5 genetic toxicity in vitro      
  bacterial test (gene mutation) S. typhimurium

Ames test

+ (with metabolic activation)
+ (without metabolic activation)
  non-bacterial in vitro test
(chromosomal abberations)
CHO K1   - (with metabolic activation)
- (without metabolic activation)
5.6 genetic toxicity in vivo rat (Fischer)   positive
5.8 toxicity to reproduction /

/

NOEL = mg/kg (general toxicity)
NOEL = mg/kg (rep. tox. parental)
NOEL = mg/kg (rep. tox. F1)
5.9 developmental toxicity / teratogenicity /

/

NOEL = mg/kg (general toxicity)
NOEL = mg/kg (pregnancy/litter)
NOEL = mg/kg (foetal data)
5.11 experience with human exposure